# 26 Lecture

## Norton's Theorem with examples Part 2

Norton's Theorem is another important concept in circuit theory that allows us to simplify complex circuits into a more manageable form.

## Important Mcq's Midterm & Finalterm Prepration Past papers included

What does Norton's theorem state about a linear circuit?

A. It can be replaced with a single voltage source and a series resistor.

B. It can be replaced with a single current source and a parallel resistor.

C. It can be replaced with a single capacitor and an inductor.

D. None of the above.

What is the equivalent resistance in a Norton equivalent circuit?

A. The resistance across the two terminals of the circuit.

B. The resistance across the two parallel components in the circuit.

C. The resistance across the two series components in the circuit.

D. None of the above.

Can Norton's theorem be applied to nonlinear circuits?

A. Yes

B. No

What is the significance of the Norton current in a circuit?

A. It is equal to the open circuit voltage of the circuit.

B. It is equal to the short circuit current of the circuit.

C. It is equal to the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

D. None of the above.

How is the Norton equivalent circuit different from the original circuit?

A. The Norton equivalent circuit has a single voltage source and a series resistor.

B. The Norton equivalent circuit has a single current source and a parallel resistor.

C. The Norton equivalent circuit has the same number of components as the original circuit.

D. None of the above.

What is the purpose of using Norton's theorem in circuit analysis?

A. To make the circuit more complicated.

B. To make the circuit easier to analyze.

C. To increase the voltage across the circuit.

D. None of the above.

What is the Norton resistance in a circuit?

A. It is equal to the resistance between the two terminals of the circuit when all the independent sources are turned off.

B. It is equal to the resistance between the two parallel components in the circuit.

C. It is equal to the resistance between the two series components in the circuit.

D. None of the above.

How is the Norton equivalent circuit useful in circuit design?

A. It can be used to calculate the equivalent resistance of the circuit.

B. It can be used to calculate the voltage across any load resistance connected between the two terminals of the circuit.

C. It can be used to calculate the current across any load resistance connected between the two terminals of the circuit.

D. None of the above.

How is the Norton current determined in a circuit?

A. It is equal to the voltage across the circuit.

B. It is equal to the resistance of the circuit.

C. It is equal to the short circuit current that would flow through the original circuit when the load resistance is set to zero.

D. None of the above.

What is the difference between Norton's current and load current in a circuit?

A. Norton's current is the current that flows through the circuit when the load resistance is nonzero, while the load current is the current that would flow through the circuit when the load resistance is set to zero.

B. Norton's current is the current that would flow through the circuit when the load resistance is set to zero, while the load current is the current that flows through the circuit when the load resistance is nonzero.

C. Norton's current is the same as the load current.

D. None of the above.

## Subjective Short Notes Midterm & Finalterm Prepration Past papers included

What is Norton's Theorem?

Answer: Norton's Theorem states that any linear circuit with two terminals can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a single current source in parallel with a resistor.

How do you find the short-circuit current for a circuit using Norton's Theorem?

Answer: The short-circuit current is found by connecting a wire across the two terminals of the circuit and applying Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL).

How do you find the equivalent resistance for a circuit using Norton's Theorem?

Answer: The equivalent resistance is found by removing all independent sources from the circuit and shorting the two terminals. The equivalent resistance is then equal to the resistance measured between the two terminals.

What is the value of the current source in a Norton equivalent circuit?

Answer: The value of the current source in a Norton equivalent circuit is equal to the short-circuit current of the original circuit.

What is the value of the resistor in a Norton equivalent circuit?

Answer: The value of the resistor in a Norton equivalent circuit is equal to the equivalent resistance of the original circuit.

How can Norton's Theorem be used to simplify complex circuits?

Answer: Norton's Theorem can be used to replace a complex circuit with a simpler Norton equivalent circuit, which can make calculations easier.

Can Norton's Theorem be applied to non-linear circuits?

Answer: No, Norton's Theorem can only be applied to linear circuits.

What is the main difference between Thevenin's Theorem and Norton's Theorem?

Answer: The main difference between Thevenin's Theorem and Norton's Theorem is that Thevenin's Theorem replaces a circuit with a voltage source and a resistor, while Norton's Theorem replaces a circuit with a current source and a resistor.

How do you find the current through a load resistance in a Norton equivalent circuit?

Answer: The current through a load resistance is found by multiplying the Norton current source by the load resistance divided by the sum of the load resistance and the Norton equivalent resistor.

Can Norton's Theorem be used to find the voltage across a load resistance?

Answer: No, Norton's Theorem cannot be used to find the voltage across a load resistance directly. The voltage can be found by multiplying the current through the load resistance by the load resistance itself.

### Norton's Theorem with examples

Norton's Theorem is another important concept in circuit theory that allows us to simplify complex circuits into a more manageable form. It states that any linear circuit with two terminals can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a single current source in parallel with a resistor. This is useful for simplifying circuits and can make calculations easier. Let us take a closer look at Norton's Theorem and some examples of how it can be used in circuit analysis. Norton's Theorem states that a linear circuit with two terminals can be represented by a single current source in parallel with a resistor. The value of the current source is equal to the short-circuit current between the two terminals, while the value of the resistor is equal to the resistance measured between the two terminals with all the independent sources turned off. To apply Norton's Theorem, we need to follow these steps: Find the short-circuit current between the two terminals of the circuit. Find the equivalent resistance between the two terminals with all independent sources turned off. Replace the circuit with a single current source in parallel with a resistor. Set the value of the current source equal to the short-circuit current and the value of the resistor equal to the equivalent resistance. Let us take an example of a circuit and see how Norton's Theorem can be used to simplify it. Consider the circuit shown below: Norton's Theorem Example Circuit We need to find the Norton equivalent circuit for this circuit. To do that, we first need to find the short-circuit current between the two terminals of the circuit. To find the short-circuit current, we need to connect a wire across the two terminals, as shown below: Norton's Theorem Example Circuit Short Circuit We can now find the short-circuit current by applying Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) at the node between the two resistors: I_sc = (V1 - V2) / R1 + (V1 - V2) / R2 Substituting the given values, we get: I_sc = (40 - 0) / 10 + (40 - 20) / 20 = 5 A Next, we need to find the equivalent resistance between the two terminals with all independent sources turned off. To do that, we need to remove the voltage source and short the terminals as shown below: Norton's Theorem Example Circuit Equivalent Resistance The equivalent resistance is equal to the series combination of R1 and R2: R_eq = R1 + R2 = 10 + 20 = 30 ? Now we can replace the original circuit with a Norton equivalent circuit consisting of a single current source in parallel with a resistor. The value of the current source is equal to the short-circuit current, which we found to be 5 A. The value of the resistor is equal to the equivalent resistance, which we found to be 30 ?. The Norton equivalent circuit is shown below: Norton's Theorem Example Circuit Norton Equivalent Now we can use the Norton equivalent circuit to find the current through any load resistance connected between the two terminals of the circuit. Let us assume a load resistance of 10 ?. The current through the load resistance is given by: I_load = I_Norton * (R_load / (R_load + R_Norton)) Substituting the given values, we get: I_load = 5 * (10 / (10 + 30)) =