# PHY101

### Midterm & Final Term

Short Notes

## AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS **Lectures:** 45

#### Past Papers Mcq's

##### Mid Term Important Mcqs From Lec 01 to 22 (Past Papers included) Download PDF

##### Final Term Important Mcqs From Lec 23 to 45 (Past Papers included) Download PDF

##### Final Term Important Mcqs From Lec 01 to 45 (Past Papers included) Download PDF

#### Past Papers Subjective

##### Mid Term Important Subjective From Lec 01 to 22 (Past Papers included) Download PDF

##### Final Term Important Subjective From Lec 23 to 45 (Past Papers included) Download PDF

##### Final Term Important Subjective From Lec 01 to 45 (Past Papers included) Download PDF

#### Lectures:

1 Lecture - Introduction to physics and this course
2 Lecture - Kinematics – I
3 Lecture - Kinematics – II
4 Lecture - Force and Newton’s Laws
5 Lecture - Applications of Newton’s Laws – I
6 Lecture - Applications of Newton’s Laws – II
7 Lecture - Work and Energy
8 Lecture - Momentum
9 Lecture - Collisions
10 Lecture - Rotational Kinematics
11 Lecture - Conservation of Energy
12 Lecture - Physics of Many Particles
13 Lecture - Angular Momentum
14 Lecture - Equilibrium of Rigid Bodies
15 Lecture - Oscillations – I
16 Lecture - Oscillations – II
17 Lecture - Physics of Materials
18 Lecture - Physics of Fluids
20 Lecture - Physics of Sound
21 Lecture - Wave Motion
22 Lecture - Gravitation
23 Lecture - Electrostatics – I
24 Lecture - Electrostatics – II
26 Lecture - Electric Potential
27 Lecture - Capacitors and Currents
28 Lecture - Currents and Circuits
29 Lecture - The Magnetic Field
30 Lecture - Electromagnetic Induction
31 Lecture - Alternating Current
33 Lecture - Electromagnetic Waves
34 Lecture - Physics of Light
35 Lecture - Interaction of Light with Matter
36 Lecture - Interference and Diffraction
37 Lecture - The Particle Nature of Light
38 Lecture - Geometrical Optics
39 Lecture - Heat – I
40 Lecture - Heat – II
41 Lecture - Heat – III
42 Lecture - Special Relativity – I
43 Lecture - Special Relativity – II
44 Lecture - Matter as Waves
45 Lecture - Quantum Mechanics

### AN INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS

Physics is a branch of science that deals with the study of matter, energy, and their interactions. It is one of the most fundamental sciences, which has contributed immensely to our understanding of the universe around us. Physics helps us understand the workings of everything from the smallest subatomic particles to the largest galaxies.
The origins of modern physics can be traced back to the work of Galileo Galilei, who was a renowned Italian physicist and astronomer. He is credited with establishing the scientific method, which is the basis of all scientific research today. Galileo made many significant contributions to the field of physics, including the development of the telescope, the laws of motion, and the concept of inertia.
Another great physicist who contributed significantly to the development of modern physics was Sir Isaac Newton. He is best known for his laws of motion, which form the foundation of classical mechanics. Newton also developed the law of universal gravitation, which explains how all objects with mass attract each other.
The field of physics has expanded significantly since the days of Galileo and Newton. Today, it encompasses many subfields, including classical mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and relativity.
Classical mechanics is the study of the motion of objects under the influence of forces. It includes the laws of motion developed by Newton, which describe how forces cause changes in an object's motion. Classical mechanics also includes the study of waves, such as sound waves and light waves.
Electromagnetism is the study of the interaction between electrically charged particles. It includes the study of electric fields, magnetic fields, and the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, microwaves, and X-rays, are also a part of electromagnetism.
Thermodynamics is the study of heat and its relationship with energy. It includes the study of temperature, entropy, and the laws of thermodynamics. Thermodynamics is essential in understanding how energy is transformed from one form to another.
Quantum mechanics is the study of the behavior of matter and energy at the atomic and subatomic levels. It includes the study of particles, such as electrons and photons, and their behavior in different states. Quantum mechanics has led to many technological advancements, including the development of transistors and lasers.
Relativity is the study of the relationship between space and time. It includes the theory of special relativity, which explains how time and space are relative to an observer's frame of reference. The theory of general relativity explains the relationship between gravity and space-time.
Physics plays a significant role in many fields, including engineering, medicine, and technology. The principles of physics are applied in the design of buildings, bridges, and other structures. Medical imaging, such as X-rays and MRI scans, relies on the principles of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics. The development of new technologies, such as computers and smartphones, also depends on the principles of physics.
In conclusion, physics is a fundamental science that has contributed significantly to our understanding of the universe. It includes the study of matter, energy, and their interactions. Physics has many subfields, including classical mechanics, electromagnetism, thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and relativity. The principles of physics are applied in many fields, including engineering, medicine, and technology. Physics continues to play a vital role in advancing our understanding of the world around us, and it will undoubtedly continue to do so in the future.