# 29 Lecture

## MTH101

### Midterm & Final Term Short Notes

## Definite Integral

The definite integral is represented by the symbol ? and is defined as the limit of a sum. The sum is made up of infinitely many small rectangular strips of equal width, which are stacked together to form a shape that closely approximates the ar

**Important Mcq's**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

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**What is the definition of a definite integral?**

A. A limit of a Riemann sum

B. An antiderivative of a function

C. A sum of infinitely small rectangles

D. A limit of a derivative

Answer: A

**What does the definite integral represent?**

A. The rate of change of a function

B. The area under a curve between two points

C. The slope of a tangent line

D. The limit of a function

Answer: B

**What is the notation used for the definite integral?**

A. ?f(x)dx

B. f'(x)

C. limx?a f(x)

D. ?f(x)

Answer: A

**What is the fundamental theorem of calculus?**

A. The limit of a Riemann sum

B. The derivative of a function

C. The area under a curve

D. The relationship between derivatives and integrals

Answer: D

**What is the formula for the definite integral of a function f(x) between a and b?**

A. ?a^bf(x)dx = f(b) - f(a)

B. ?a^bf(x)dx = f(a) - f(b)

C. ?a^bf(x)dx = f(a) + f(b)

D. ?a^bf(x)dx = 2(f(b) - f(a))

Answer: A

**What is the Riemann sum?**

A. A numerical method for evaluating the definite integral

B. A method for finding the derivative of a function

C. A method for finding the antiderivative of a function

D. A method for approximating the area under a curve using rectangles

Answer: D

**What is numerical integration?**

A. A method for finding the derivative of a function

B. A method for finding the antiderivative of a function

C. A method for approximating the area under a curve using rectangles

D. A method for evaluating the definite integral using exact formulas

Answer: C

**What is the trapezoidal rule?**

A. A method for approximating the area under a curve using trapezoids

B. A method for approximating the area under a curve using rectangles

C. A method for evaluating the definite integral using exact formulas

D. A method for finding the derivative of a function

Answer: A

**What are some real-world applications of the definite integral?**

A. Calculating the area of a circle

B. Calculating the volume of a sphere

C. Calculating the present value of future cash flows

D. Calculating the velocity of an object

Answer: C

**What is the relationship between the derivative and the definite integral?**

A. The derivative is the inverse of the definite integral

B. The derivative represents the area under the curve

C. The definite integral represents the rate of change of a function

D. The derivative and definite integral are inverse operations

Answer: D

**Subjective Short Notes**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

Past papers included

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**What is the definite integral?**

**Answer: **A definite integral is a mathematical tool used to calculate the area under a curve, as well as to find the net change of a quantity over a specified interval.

**How is the definite integral represented?**

**Answer:** The definite integral is represented by the symbol ?.

**What is the difference between a definite integral and an indefinite integral?**

**Answer: **A definite integral has limits of integration and gives a numerical value, while an indefinite integral does not have limits of integration and gives a family of functions.

**What is the fundamental theorem of calculus?**

**Answer:** The fundamental theorem of calculus states that the definite integral of a function f(x) between two points a and b is equal to the difference of the antiderivative of f(x) evaluated at b and a.

**What is the relationship between the derivative and the definite integral?**

**Answer:** The derivative of a function represents its rate of change, while the definite integral represents the accumulated change over a specified interval.

**What is the Riemann sum?**

**Answer:** The Riemann sum is a method for evaluating the definite integral by dividing the area under the curve into small rectangular strips of equal width and adding up the areas of all the rectangles.

**What is numerical integration?**

**Answer:** Numerical integration is a method for evaluating the definite integral using numerical methods to approximate the integral when it cannot be evaluated analytically.

**What is the trapezoidal rule?**

**Answer: **The trapezoidal rule is a numerical method for evaluating the definite integral by approximating the area under the curve using trapezoids instead of rectangles.

**What are the real-world applications of the definite integral?**

**Answer:** The definite integral has many real-world applications, such as in physics, engineering, economics, and finance.

**How can the definite integral be used in finance?**

**Answer: **The definite integral can be used in finance to calculate the present value of future cash flows.

### Definite Integral

Calculus is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of rates of change and the accumulation of quantities. One of the fundamental concepts in calculus is the definite integral. A definite integral is a mathematical tool used to calculate the area under a curve, as well as to find the net change of a quantity over a specified interval. The definite integral is represented by the symbol ? and is defined as the limit of a sum. The sum is made up of infinitely many small rectangular strips of equal width, which are stacked together to form a shape that closely approximates the area under the curve. The definite integral is used to find the area under a curve between two points on the x-axis. The two points are denoted as a and b, where a is the lower limit and b is the upper limit of integration.### The definite integral of a function f(x) between a and b is denoted as:

?a^b f(x) dx The integral sign represents the operation of integration, while dx represents an infinitely small increment in the x-direction. To evaluate the definite integral, we use the fundamental theorem of calculus, which states that the definite integral of a function f(x) between two points a and b is equal to the difference of the antiderivative of f(x) evaluated at b and a.### Mathematically, we can write the fundamental theorem of calculus as:

?a^b f(x) dx = F(b) - F(a) where F(x) is the antiderivative or the indefinite integral of f(x). There are different methods to evaluate the definite integral. One of the most commonly used methods is the Riemann sum. In the Riemann sum, we divide the area under the curve into small rectangular strips of equal width, and we calculate the area of each rectangle. We then add up the areas of all the rectangles to find the total area under the curve. Another method for evaluating the definite integral is numerical integration. Numerical integration is used when the integral cannot be evaluated analytically. In numerical integration, we use numerical methods to approximate the integral. One of the most commonly used numerical methods is the trapezoidal rule. In the trapezoidal rule, we approximate the area under the curve using trapezoids instead of rectangles. The definite integral has many real-world applications, such as in physics, engineering, economics, and finance. In physics, the definite integral is used to calculate the work done by a force on an object. In engineering, the definite integral is used to calculate the volume of irregularly shaped objects. In economics, the definite integral is used to calculate the marginal cost and the marginal revenue of a company. In finance, the definite integral is used to calculate the present value of future cash flows.**In conclusion,**the definite integral is a fundamental concept in calculus that allows us to find the area under a curve and to calculate the net change of a quantity over a specified interval. The definite integral is represented by the symbol ? and is defined as the limit of a sum. To evaluate the definite integral, we use the fundamental theorem of calculus. The definite integral has many real-world applications, such as in physics, engineering, economics, and finance.