# 45 Lecture

## MTH101

### Midterm & Final Term Short Notes

## Taylor and Maclaurin Series

Taylor and Maclaurin series can be used to evaluate functions at points where it is difficult to do so using traditional methods.

**Important Mcq's**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

Past papers included

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**What is the Maclaurin series for f(x) = e^x?**

A. 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ...

B. 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ... + x^n/n! + ...

C. 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ... + x^n/n! + ... + x^?/?!

D. None of the above

Answer: A

**What is the Taylor series for f(x) = sin(x) centered at x = 0?**

A. x - x^3/3! + x^5/5! - x^7/7! + ...

B. x + x^3/3! + x^5/5! + x^7/7! + ...

C. 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ... + x^n/n! + ...

D. None of the above

Answer: A

**What is the Taylor series for f(x) = ln(x) centered at x = 1?**

A. (x - 1) - (x - 1)^2/2 + (x - 1)^3/3 - (x - 1)^4/4 + ...

B. (x - 1) + (x - 1)^2/2 - (x - 1)^3/3 + (x - 1)^4/4 - ...

C. 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ... + x^n/n! + ...

D. None of the above

Answer: B

**What is the Maclaurin series for f(x) = cos(x)?**

A. 1 - x^2/2! + x^4/4! - x^6/6! + ...

B. 1 - x^2/2! + x^4/4! - x^6/6! + ... + x^n/n! - ...

C. x - x^3/3! + x^5/5! - x^7/7! + ...

D. None of the above

Answer: A

**What is the Taylor series for f(x) = sqrt(x) centered at x = 4?**

A. 2 - (x - 4)/4 + (x - 4)^2/32 - (x - 4)^3/256 + ...

B. 2 + (x - 4)/4 - (x - 4)^2/32 + (x - 4)^3/256 + ...

C. 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ... + x^n/n! + ...

D. None of the above

Answer: A

**Which test can be used to determine if a Taylor series converges?**

A. Ratio test

B. Root test

C. Comparison test

D. Alternating series test

Answer: B

**What is the interval of convergence for the Maclaurin series of f(x) = 1/(1+x)?**

A. (-1, 1)

B. (-1, 1]

C. [-1, 1)

D. [-1, 1]

Answer: D

**What is the interval of convergence for the Taylor series of f(x) = e^x centered at x = 3?**

A. (-?, ?)

B. (-3,

**Subjective Short Notes**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

Past papers included

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**What is a Taylor series?**

**Answer: **A Taylor series is an infinite series representation of a function as a sum of its derivatives evaluated at a specific point.

**What is a Maclaurin series?**

**Answer:** A Maclaurin series is a special case of the Taylor series where the point of expansion is zero.

**What is the formula for a Taylor series?**

**Answer: **The formula for a Taylor series is: f(x) = f(a) + f'(a)(x-a) + f''(a)(x-a)^2/2! + f'''(a)(x-a)^3/3! + ...

**What is the formula for a Maclaurin series?**

**Answer:** The formula for a Maclaurin series is: f(x) = f(0) + f'(0)x + f''(0)x^2/2! + f'''(0)x^3/3! + ...

**What is the nth term in a Taylor series?**

**Answer: **The nth term in a Taylor series is: f^(n)(a)(x-a)^n/n!, where f^(n)(a) is the nth derivative of f evaluated at a.

**What is the nth term in a Maclaurin series?**

**Answer: **The nth term in a Maclaurin series is: f^(n)(0)x^n/n!, where f^(n)(0) is the nth derivative of f evaluated at zero.

**What is the Lagrange form of the remainder term in a Taylor series?**

**Answer:** The Lagrange form of the remainder term in a Taylor series is: Rn(x) = f^(n+1)(c)(x-a)^(n+1)/(n+1)!, where c is a value between a and x.

**What is the Lagrange form of the remainder term in a Maclaurin series?**

**Answer: **The Lagrange form of the remainder term in a Maclaurin series is: Rn(x) = f^(n+1)(c)x^(n+1)/(n+1)!, where c is a value between 0 and x.

**What is the Taylor series expansion of e^x?**

**Answer: **The Taylor series expansion of e^x is: e^x = 1 + x + x^2/2! + x^3/3! + ...

**What is the Maclaurin series expansion of sin x?**

**Answer: **The Maclaurin series expansion of sin x is: sin x = x - x^3/3! + x^5/5! - x^7/7! + ...

### Taylor and Maclaurin Series

Taylor and Maclaurin series are important tools in calculus and are used to approximate functions as a polynomial. A Taylor series is a series expansion of a function about a point. It represents the function as an infinite sum of terms that are calculated using the function's derivatives evaluated at the point of expansion. A Maclaurin series is a special case of the Taylor series, where the point of expansion is 0. Taylor and Maclaurin series can be used to evaluate functions at points where it is difficult to do so using traditional methods. The series can be truncated after a certain number of terms to approximate the function with a polynomial of a given degree. The more terms that are included in the series, the more accurate the approximation will be. The Taylor series for a function f(x) about a point x = a is given by: f(x) = f(a) + f'(a)(x-a) + (f''(a)/2!)(x-a)^2 + (f'''(a)/3!)(x-a)^3 + ... where f'(a) denotes the first derivative of f(x) evaluated at x = a, f''(a) denotes the second derivative of f(x) evaluated at x = a, and so on. The terms in the series are calculated using the derivatives of f(x) evaluated at the point of expansion. The Maclaurin series for a function f(x) is a special case of the Taylor series, where the point of expansion is x = 0. The Maclaurin series for f(x) is given by: f(x) = f(0) + f'(0)x + (f''(0)/2!)x^2 + (f'''(0)/3!)x^3 + ... Again, the terms in the series are calculated using the derivatives of f(x) evaluated at x = 0. Taylor and Maclaurin series can be used to approximate functions to a desired degree of accuracy. The error in the approximation can be calculated using Taylor's theorem, which states that if f(x) has n + 1 continuous derivatives on an interval I containing a, then for each x in I, there exists a number c between x and a such that: f(x) = f(a) + f'(a)(x-a) + (f''(a)/2!)(x-a)^2 + ... + (f^(n)(a)/n!)(x-a)^n + R_n(x) where R_n(x) is the remainder term given by: R_n(x) = (f^(n+1)(c)/n+1!)(x-a)^n+1**This means that the error in the approximation can be bounded by the remainder term, which depends on the size of the nth derivative of f(x) on the interval I.**

**In summary,**Taylor and Maclaurin series are powerful tools in calculus that can be used to approximate functions as polynomials. They are particularly useful when it is difficult to evaluate functions at specific points using traditional methods. By truncating the series after a certain number of terms, the function can be approximated with a polynomial of a given degree. The error in the approximation can be bounded by the remainder term, which depends on the size of the nth derivative of the function on the interval of interest.