# 8 Lecture

## MTH101

### Midterm & Final Term Short Notes

## Graphing Functions

Graphing functions is an essential skill in calculus and analytical geometry. It involves visualizing the behavior of a function, such as its shape, intercepts, and key points, on a two-dimensional coordinate plane.

**Important Mcq's**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

Past papers included

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**Which axis represents the independent variable or input values in a graph?**a. x-axis b. y-axis c. origin d. none of the above

**Answer: a. x-axis**

**What is the purpose of graphing functions?**a. To visualize the behavior of a function b. To solve equations c. To memorize formulas d. None of the above

**Answer: a. To visualize the behavior of a function**

**How do we find the x-intercepts of a function?**a. Set the function equal to zero and solve for x b. Set x equal to zero and solve for y c. Take the derivative of the function d. None of the above

**Answer: a. Set the function equal to zero and solve for x**

**Which type of function has a minimum at its vertex with a positive leading coefficient?**a. Even-degree functions b. Odd-degree functions c. Both even-degree and odd-degree functions d. None of the above

**Answer: a. Even-degree functions**

**Which type of function has a maximum at its vertex with a negative leading coefficient?**a. Even-degree functions b. Odd-degree functions c. Both even-degree and odd-degree functions d. None of the above

**Answer: a. Even-degree functions**

**Which type of function is symmetric about the y-axis?**a. Even functions b. Odd functions c. Both even and odd functions d. None of the above

**Answer: a. Even functions**

**Which type of function is symmetric about the origin?**a. Even functions b. Odd functions c. Both even and odd functions d. None of the above

**Answer: b. Odd functions**

**What are the critical points?**a. The points where the function is equal to zero b. The points where the derivative is equal to zero or does not exist c. The points where the function intersects the y-axis d. None of the above

**Answer: b. The points where the derivative is equal to zero or does not exist**

**How do we determine the location of local extrema?**a. We test the sign of the derivative on either side of the critical point b. We test the sign of the second derivative on either side of the critical point c. We set the derivative equal to zero and solve for x d. None of the above

**Answer: a. We test the sign of the derivative on either side of the critical point**

**How do we determine the location of inflection points?**a. We test the sign of the derivative on either side of the critical point b. We test the sign of the second derivative on either side of the critical point c. We set the second derivative equal to zero and solve for x d. None of the above

**Answer: b. We test the sign of the second derivative on either side of the critical point**

**Subjective Short Notes**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

Past papers included

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**What is the purpose of graphing functions in calculus and analytical geometry? Answer:**The purpose of graphing functions is to visualize the behavior of a function, such as its shape, intercepts, and key points, on a two-dimensional coordinate plane.**What are the components of a graph? Answer:**The x-axis represents the independent variable or input values, while the y-axis represents the dependent variable or output values. The origin (0,0) is where the x and y-axes intersect.**How do we find the intercepts of a function? Answer:**To find the x-intercepts, we set the function equal to zero and solve for x. To find the y-intercepts, we set x equal to zero and solve for y.**What is the behavior of even-degree functions with a positive leading coefficient as x approaches infinity or negative infinity? Answer:**Even-degree functions with a positive leading coefficient will have a minimum at their vertex and will approach positive infinity as x approaches positive or negative infinity.**What is the behavior of even-degree functions with a negative leading coefficient as x approaches infinity or negative infinity? Answer:**Even-degree functions with a negative leading coefficient will have a maximum at their vertex and will approach negative infinity as x approaches positive or negative infinity.**What is the behavior of odd-degree functions as x approaches infinity or negative infinity? Answer:**Odd-degree functions will approach positive infinity as x approaches positive infinity and negative infinity as x approaches negative infinity.**What is the difference between even and odd functions? Answer:**Even functions are symmetric about the y-axis, while odd functions are symmetric about the origin.**How do we find the critical points of a function? Answer:**The critical points of a function are the points where the derivative is equal to zero or does not exist.**How do we determine the location of local extrema? Answer:**We use the first derivative test to find the critical points and test the sign of the derivative on either side of the critical point.**How do we determine the location of inflection points? Answer:**We use the second derivative test to find the critical points of the second derivative and test the sign of the second derivative on either side of the critical point.

### Graphing Functions

Graphing functions is an essential skill in calculus and analytical geometry. It involves visualizing the behavior of a function, such as its shape, intercepts, and key points, on a two-dimensional coordinate plane. Graphs allow us to see relationships between variables and provide insights into how functions behave. In this article, we will discuss the basics of graphing functions in calculus and analytical geometry. Before we begin, it is essential to understand the components of a graph. The x-axis represents the independent variable or input values, while the y-axis represents the dependent variable or output values. The origin (0,0) is where the x and y-axes intersect. It is also important to note that the graph of a function is the set of all ordered pairs (x, y) that satisfy the function. To graph a function, we first need to find its intercepts, which are the points where the function intersects the x and y-axes. To find the x-intercepts, we set the function equal to zero and solve for x. To find the y-intercepts, we set x equal to zero and solve for y. Once we have found the intercepts, we plot them on the graph. Next, we need to determine the behavior of the function as x approaches infinity or negative infinity. We do this by examining the degree of the function and the sign of the leading coefficient. If the degree of the function is even and the leading coefficient is positive, the function will have a minimum at its vertex and will approach positive infinity as x approaches positive or negative infinity. If the degree of the function is even and the leading coefficient is negative, the function will have a maximum at its vertex and will approach negative infinity as x approaches positive or negative infinity. If the degree of the function is odd, the function will approach positive infinity as x approaches positive infinity and negative infinity as x approaches negative infinity. Next, we look for any symmetry in the graph. Even functions are symmetric about the y-axis, while odd functions are symmetric about the origin. To determine if a function is even or odd, we test whether f(-x) = f(x) or f(-x) = -f(x). We also need to find the critical points of the function, which are the points where the derivative is equal to zero or does not exist. The critical points can help us determine the location of local extrema and inflection points, which are points where the concavity of the function changes. To find the local extrema, we use the first derivative test. We find the critical points and test the sign of the derivative on either side of the critical point. If the derivative changes from positive to negative, the function has a local maximum at that point. If the derivative changes from negative to positive, the function has a local minimum at that point. To find the inflection points, we use the second derivative test. We find the critical points of the second derivative and test the sign of the second derivative on either side of the critical point. If the second derivative changes sign, the function has an inflection point at that point. Finally, we plot the key points on the graph, such as the intercepts, critical points, local extrema, and inflection points. We then connect the points with smooth curves to get a complete picture of the function's behavior.**In conclusion,**graphing functions is an essential skill in calculus and analytical geometry. To graph a function, we need to find the intercepts, determine the behavior of the function as x approaches infinity or negative infinity, look for any symmetry in the graph, find the critical points, and plot the key points on the graph. Graphs provide insights into the behavior of functions and can help us understand the relationships between variables.