# 32 Lecture

## MTH101

### Midterm & Final Term Short Notes

## Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is an important theorem in calculus that connects the concepts of integration and differentiation. It provides a method for computing definite integrals by evaluating the antiderivative of a function at

**Important Mcq's**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

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**What is the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?**

A. It states that integration is the reverse of differentiation.

B. It states that differentiation is the reverse of integration.

C. It relates the integral of a function to its antiderivative.

Answer: C

**What is the formula for the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?**

A. ?baf'(x)dx = F(b) - F(a)

B. ?abf(x)dx = F(b) - F(a)

C. ?abf(x)dx = F(a) - F(b)

Answer: A

**If f(x) = 2x^3 and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), what is the value of ?23f'(x)dx using the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?**

A. 54

B. 32

C. 16

**Answer: C**

**What is the relationship between the First and Second Fundamental Theorems of Calculus?**

A. The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is a generalization of the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

B. The First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is a generalization of the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

C. The two theorems are unrelated.

**Answer: A**

**What is the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus used for?**

A. To find the derivative of a function.

B. To find the integral of a function.

C. To evaluate definite integrals.

**Answer: C**

**If f(x) = x^2 and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), what is the value of ?20f(x)dx using the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?**

A. 8

B. 12

C. 20

**Answer: B**

**What is the derivative of ?x^2sin(x)dx with respect to x?**

A. x^2sin(x)

B. sin(x)

C. 2xsin(x) - x^2cos(x)

**Answer: C**

**If F(x) = ?x^3cos(t)dt, what is F'(x)?**

A. x^2sin(x)

B. cos(x)

C. 3x^2cos(x)

**Answer: C**

**If f(x) = 1/x and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), what is the value of ?11/2f(x)dx using the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?**

A. ln(2)

B. ln(1/2)

C. -ln(2)

**Answer: B**

**What is the formula for the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus in Leibniz notation?**

A. d/dx ?a^x f(t)dt = f(x)

B. ?ab f'(x)dx = f(b) - f(a)

C. d/dx ?a^x f'(t)dt = f(x)

**Answer: A**

**Subjective Short Notes**

Midterm & Finalterm Prepration

Past papers included

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**What is the second fundamental theorem of calculus?**

**Answer:** The second fundamental theorem of calculus states that if f(x) is a continuous function on the closed interval [a,b] and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x) on [a,b], then the definite integral of f(x) from a to b can be evaluated as F(b) - F(a).

**What is the relationship between the first and second fundamental theorems of calculus?**

**Answer: **The first fundamental theorem of calculus establishes the relationship between derivatives and definite integrals, while the second fundamental theorem of calculus establishes the relationship between definite integrals and antiderivatives.

**How can the second fundamental theorem of calculus be used to evaluate definite integrals?**

**Answer: **The second fundamental theorem of calculus can be used to evaluate definite integrals by first finding an antiderivative of the integrand and then plugging in the upper and lower limits of integration to find the difference between the values of the antiderivative at those limits.

**What is the significance of the second fundamental theorem of calculus in the applications of calculus?**

**Answer: **The second fundamental theorem of calculus provides a powerful tool for evaluating definite integrals, which is important in many applications of calculus, including physics, engineering, and economics.

**What are the conditions required for the second fundamental theorem of calculus to be applicable?**

**Answer:** The second fundamental theorem of calculus is applicable if the function being integrated is continuous on the closed interval [a,b] and has an antiderivative on that interval.

**How does the second fundamental theorem of calculus relate to the concept of the area under a curve?**

**Answer:** The second fundamental theorem of calculus can be used to evaluate the area under a curve by finding an antiderivative of the function defining the curve and evaluating it at the upper and lower limits of integration.

**What is the difference between the definite integral and the antiderivative of a function?**

**Answer: **The definite integral of a function over an interval represents the area under the curve of the function over that interval, while the antiderivative of a function represents a function whose derivative is equal to the original function.

**How does the second fundamental theorem of calculus relate to the concept of accumulation?**

**Answer: **The second fundamental theorem of calculus can be used to express the accumulation of a quantity over a given interval in terms of the antiderivative of the function defining the quantity.

**How can the second fundamental theorem of calculus be used to find the average value of a function over an interval?**

**Answer: **The second fundamental theorem of calculus can be used to find the average value of a function over an interval by first evaluating the definite integral of the function over that interval and then dividing by the length of the interval.

**What is the importance of the second fundamental theorem of calculus in the development of calculus as a mathematical field?**

**Answer: **The second fundamental theorem of calculus is one of the central results of calculus, and its importance lies in its ability to connect the concepts of derivatives, integrals, and antiderivatives, which are the building blocks of calculus.

### Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus

The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is an important theorem in calculus that connects the concepts of integration and differentiation. It provides a method for computing definite integrals by evaluating the antiderivative of a function at two endpoints. The theorem is often used in physics, engineering, and other sciences to solve problems involving motion, velocity, and acceleration. The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus states that if f(x) is a continuous function on the interval [a, b] and F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), then the definite integral of f(x) from a to b can be computed by evaluating F(b) - F(a). In other words, the integral of a function is equal to the difference between its antiderivative evaluated at the upper and lower limits of integration.### Mathematically, we can write the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus as:

?[a,b] f(x) dx = F(b) - F(a) where F(x) is an antiderivative of f(x), also known as the indefinite integral of f(x). This theorem shows the relationship between the integral of a function and its antiderivative. The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus can be proven by using the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and the Mean Value Theorem for Integrals. Let's consider a function f(x) that is continuous on [a, b], and let F(x) be an antiderivative of f(x). Then, we can write: ?[a,b] f(x) dx = lim n?? ?i=1n f(xi) ?x where xi is a point in the ith subinterval [xi-1, xi] and ?x = (b-a)/n is the width of each subinterval. By the Mean Value Theorem for Integrals, we can find a point ci in each subinterval such that: f(ci) = 1/?x ?[xi-1,xi] f(x) dx### Substituting this expression into the previous equation, we get:

?[a,b] f(x) dx = lim n?? ?i=1n f(ci) ?x = lim n?? ?i=1n F'(ci) ?x (by the First Fundamental Theorem of Calculus) = F(b) - F(a) (by the definition of the definite integral) Therefore, we have proven the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus. The Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus provides a powerful tool for evaluating definite integrals. It allows us to compute the area under a curve by finding an antiderivative of the function and evaluating it at the upper and lower limits of integration. This method is often simpler and more efficient than using the definition of the definite integral directly.**In summary,**the Second Fundamental Theorem of Calculus is a fundamental result in calculus that connects the concepts of integration and differentiation. It provides a method for evaluating definite integrals by computing the difference between the antiderivative of a function evaluated at two endpoints. This theorem has important applications in physics, engineering, and other sciences where problems involving motion, velocity, and acceleration are common.